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Law enforcement

A German and Dutch police side

A Belgian police

Police Boat in the Port of Rotterdam

The police is a public service responsible for maintaining public order and security , the detection and investigation of criminal offenses, direct assistance and conducting arrests (see also: Strong arm ).



  [ Hide ] 

  • 1Netherlands
  • 2Belgium
  • 3Aliases
  • 4See also
  • 5External links


Netherlands [ processing ]

1rightarrow green.svg See Police in the Netherlands for the editorial on this subject.

In European Netherlands has a national police force consisting of a National Unity, ten regional units and three support services in the form of a Police Service Center, the Police Academy and the General Staff Corps Leadership . In the Caribbean Netherlands is the Police Force Caribbean Netherlands .

The police in maintaining public order and implementation of the rescue mission under the authority of the Mayor or Governor . When the police to detect and investigate crime, it is under the authority of the public prosecutor or the joint attorney general of Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the Caribbean Netherlands.

The Royal Military Police , which comes under the Ministry of Defense , due to its publicly police also are considered police.

Belgium [ edit ]

1rightarrow green.svg See Police in Belgium for the editorial on this subject.

The Belgian police is an integrated police, structured on two levels and is under the authority of the Interior Minister and the Minister of Justice. The two levels, one local level consisting of 189 police forces and consequently as many ( local police ) and a federal level consisting of a corps throughout Belgium ( federal police ) can operate independently. However, they are complementary (local police are the basic police, the federal police and the specialized top local police, as well as support) and work closely together.

The term " integrated" police refers to the fact that the police force consists of various forces that have different tasks and governments can work independently, but complement each other, however, and have some important things in common. There is both the local and the federal police include:

  • a common (e) uniform and corporate identity (logo, letterhead, striping of transport, etc.);
  • a common statute;
  • a common mobility procedure that allows to change quite easily work within and between local police and federal police;
  • a common recruitment, selection and training;
  • a national security plan.

Consequently, there can therefore be no question of a police unit 'in Belgium (or in the Netherlands).

The local police state with its 189 corps in the basic police seven basic functions that the regular services of the police is assured. It is with this that the civilian police is most in touch. These seven basic functionalities are:

  • neighborhood policing,
  • welcome,
  • intervention,
  • aid to victims,
  • local investigation,
  • negotiated management of public space (broad concept, to which also belongs "to maintain and restore public order"),
  • traffic.

Local police also to the rest even for a few missions of federal nature: providing a certain capacity of staff (mortgaged capacity HYCAP) as reinforcement for other local forces, transferring and / or result of certain detainees to justice , etc.

The corps Federal Police is responsible for the above local and specialized police assignments and operations that transcend the boundaries of police and / or that require specific knowledge and skills. Examples include: investigation of white collar crime, investigations into serious / organized crime, forensics at various suspicious conditions and crime, risk protection contracts, specialized intervention commands, specialization in connection with law enforcement, police in special places such as airports and railway domains etc. the federal police in addition to this specialized assistance also provides reinforcement to the local police by providing personnel and material resources (eg. spray trucks, armored vehicles, barricades, etc.) during events such risky football matches, demonstrations ... some things which include recruitment, selection and training of police personnel is also owned by the federal police.

The guardianship ministers are the Minister of the Interior (in terms of managerial, administrative police) and the Ministry of Justice (with regard to judicial police).

The federal police force under the direct supervision of the two ministers custody. The 189 local police forces under the control of the mayor (as the police regards consisting of one municipality) or what the police that concerns consist of several municipalities, under the supervision of a police college (including all the mayors of the municipalities concerned).

A police chief is responsible for the daily management of a corps of local police, the commissioner general of the executive committee of the federal police.

Aliases [ processing ]

1rightarrow green.svg See list of nicknames of the police for the editorial on this subject.

In the Netherlands there are many nicknames for policemen. These range from positive ( Uncle agent , the helping hand , the strong arm , (best) comrade ) to negative ( cop , "Tuute" bluebottle , chicken , juut , fuzz , flat cap , Judas , popo , blue measuring tubes , pit , kit , the Jews ). Often the negative designations by youth groups or criminals themselves used to alert each other to the police. The police as a whole is also prince marij said.

The nickname "cop" a positive connotation was with the Flemish fiction series Cops , where the police force Ghent provided the backdrop.

See also [ edit ]

  • Police in Netherlands
  • Police in Belgium
  • strong arm
  • Military police
  • Police in Classical Antiquity
  • police state


Steve Van Winkel during Military Waregem 2016 on location in Anzegem

Military is a historical branch of equestrian sport , which nowadays eventing called or composite contest (SGW). The game has several components. One is the endurance test in the form of a so-called cross-country . The others are jumping and dressage .

1rightarrow green.svg See eventing for a description of the sport and its rules



  [ Hide ] 

  • 1Cross-country
  • 2Risks
  • 3History of the military
  • 4See also
  • 5External link


Cross-country [ edit ]

The horse and the rider riding on an open piece of field or pasture , and there are 'natural barriers' up, like constructions of trunks, counterfeit ditches and ponds. The aim is to make the journey in the quickest possible time.

For this, the horse must have a good condition; For example should a large and well-functioning heart have. Usually this sport Thoroughbred horses used. These are known for their speed and their great endurance.

Risks [ processing ]

Previously, it often that a horse stumbled and the fall was so badly injured it had to be killed. The military competitions therefore often were exposed to intense criticism. Also sometimes riders were killed in this extreme sport.

History of the military [ edit ]

In the Netherlands has annually held international eventing competition in Boekelo a long tradition point e called military. One of the most prominent participants it was the young Prince Charles . In Belgium some international competitions in Lummen and Waregem fame.

For the World War II Netherlands was one of the leading countries in the military: Charles Pahud de Mortanges , Dolf van der Voort van Zijp and Gerard de Kruijff were twice Olympic champion with the Dutch team in 1924 and 1928 .

Military stems from military trials for endurance horses.



Army may refer to:



  [ Hide ] 

  • 1General
    • 1.1Defense
    • 1.2Mechanics
    • 1.3Biology
    • 1.4Natural
  • 2toponiem
  • 3persons
    • 3.1France
    • 3.2Canada


General [ edit ]

Defense [ edit ]

  • Term for the armed forces in general.
  • Army (general) , the land forces
  • Army (unit) , a military unit consisting of two or more armies .

Other meanings refer to the old meaning berth , see Military Camp .

Mechanics [ Edit ]

  • Leger is a synonym for bearing , a "carrier" for a shaft .

Biology [ Edit ]

  • An army is a berth of various animals: hares army , foxes army , deer camp , see Army (animal shelter) .

Built [ edit ]

  • The groove army or simply army of stone , the deposition direction of a rock in the quarry

Toponiem [ processing ]

  • Saint-Léger , disambiguation
  • Charleroi Metro , a subway 


Armed Forces

Battle Heiligerlee 1568

force or army is a military organization, usually in defense of a state . Usually an army divided into an army , a navy and an air force , sometimes supplemented with other Services. The study of the deployment of a force called warfare . Its history hot military history .



  [ Hide ] 

  • 1Armed Forces to land
    • 1.1Belgium
    • 1.2Netherlands
  • 2See also


Armed country [ edit ]

Belgium [ edit ]

In Belgium, the armed forces split into components:

  • Land Component (LC, Land Component), formerly the Army
  • Air Component (AC, Air Component), former Air Force
  • Navy (NC, Navy Component), formerly the navy, and therefore the Navy
  • Medical component (MC, Medical Component), formerly the Medical Service

Netherlands [ processing ]

1rightarrow green.svg See Dutch armed forces for the editorial on this subject.

The Dutch armed forces is the responsibility of the Secretary of Defense and consists of four services:

  • the Royal Navy
  • the Royal Army
  • the Royal Air Force
  • The Royal Military Police

Since 2005, the Dutch armed forces are no independent organizations with their own commander more. The navy, army and air force have been organized into three operational commands directly under the command of the Chief of Defense fall (CDS). The trooper is due to the specific tasks usually not directly under the command of the CDS, but directly under the Secretary General of the Ministry of Defense.

See also [ edit ]

  • Defense Belgium
  • Defense Netherlands
  • Defense Austria
  • Army (unit)
  • Dutch armed forces
  • Russian forces
  • Foreign Legion
  • List of countries without an army

Army (general)

Map of armies worldwide

██  No army

██  Landmacht of only volunteers and regulars

██  Conscription, but it was decided to short-term abolition

██  Conscription (limited in some cases)

██  No information

The army , also the army said, is part of a force which moves over land. Originally an army could include infantry ( infantry ) and people on horseback ( cavalry ). From the 14th century fire support (there was artillery ) at. After the First World War horses are not used in combat. Their task was taken over by tanks and armored vehicles , which are the modern cavalry. The Dutch army is called Royal Army , the Belgian Ministry of Defense called it Land Component .

Use [ Edit ]

There are three main purposes for which an army can be deployed:

  • Defense. This need not necessarily going to defend the territory of the homeland of the Army. An army can also be sent to a friendly country to help it defend the territory of that country.
  • Attack. An army can also be used with another country to attack. This can be done to seize a piece of territory of another country or to make drastic political changes take place in another country. Attacking another country is generally considered unethical and now no longer used by most countries.
  • Of support government in no conflict related issues. The Army can support the government if for example there is an emergency which requires a sudden a lot of manpower, for example, aid after an earthquake .

Army (unit)

An army is, in the modern military organization, a military unit consisting of two or more armies . Armies can be combined into a higher level army groups .

Generally based command an army in a four-star general .

The land forces of major powers can consist of different armies.

In (army) units troops assigned. Also called troops.


Tank (vehicle)

Leopard 2 tank

tank is an armored military combat vehicle with caterpillar tracks and typically a 360 ° rotatable turret ( tower ) in which a gun is included as a main reinforcement, whose main function is ready to be dispensed fire. The tank must therefore be distinguished from both the armored vehicle (such as the Patria ) as the assault gun and the armored howitzer and the infantry fighting vehicle .

The tank is used for actions that firepower, armor and mobility are at the forefront. They form the core in an offensive operation. When defensive operations the tank in reserve will be held for the possible implementation of retaliation. There are three categories of tanks; light tanks from 8 to 25 tons, medium tanks from 25 to 50 tons, and heavy tanks weighing 50 tonnes and heavier. The gun is divided into: small-caliber, under 75mm; large caliber above 75mm. As a secondary armament usually acts a coaxial machine gun (machine gun which is fitted next to and parallel to the gun and follows its movements). There may further be provided with a tank of a machine gun against airborne targets and rookbuslanceerbuizen.

The word "tank" comes from the English ; the Netherlands was the Second World War, usually the term fighting vehicle used. Originally the word "tank" was used during World War I to mask that it was a new (secret) weapon. The workers were led fabricated the enormous steel sleeves they large mobile water tanks were making. The phrase has stuck ever since.



  [ Hide ] 

  • 1Genesis
  • 2Development
  • 3Overview of tanks (incomplete)
    • 3.1Tanks in the Great War
    • 3.2Tanks of World War II
    • 3.3Tanks after WWII
  • 4See also


Origins [ edit ]

A British Mark IV .

For the deadlock in the First World War had been to break, all parties involved were looking feverishly for new weapons.

Long before World War various military had advocated the development of armored tracked vehicles as a logical consequence of the replacement of muscle by machine power. They were here based on some technological developments that had taken place before, namely the discovery of the precursor of the caterpillars by Richard Edgeworth in 1770 and the use of tractors tracked with an engine made use of steam, during the Crimean War (1853-1856) .

However, had no army even made a prototype because of high costs. In 1903 the French captain Levasseur came up with a plan for a canon autopropulseur tracked. In 1907 tried in England Major Donoghue, to Roberts, the manufacturer of the Hornsbytractor to persuade developing a combat vehicle based on its chassis, but he refused. Plans for a Motorgeschütz drafted in 1911 by the Austrian Lieutenant Günther Burstyn, were both the Austro-Hungarian and German army received with great interest, but no funds were made available. In 1912 sent the Australian Lancelot A. Mole plans for a tank to the British War Office , which was however rejected. Starting in March 1913 in Germany there was a certain Goebel a country Panzer Kreuzer developed; However, this 550 tonne sample was not a tracked vehicle, but was expected to propel themselves on giant balls.

In a very gradual manner evolved commercial army trucks in armored vehicles when the troops to protect their vehicles saw improvised armor plates. Truck factories began then (from 1902 ) to produce special armored vehicles. These armored vehicles were only of limited use on the battlefield by their low road mobility.


File: Tanks or WWI.ogv

Tanks from the First World War: Tanks in action during the advance of the Allies in French Langres in 1918

( Download / info )

In 1914 used all parties from the beginning of the war this type of armored vehicles, as well as the British. When the fronts in motion they had proved their worth. But soon bogged down fighting in trench warfare. In the fall of 1914, a British officer, Major Ernest Dunlop Swinton (1868-1951), the idea to go around armored tracked tractors armored sleds full of soldiers of the enemy trenches. He was supported in this by the Minister of Marine Winston Churchill . Regardless of him came in 1915 , the French colonel Jean-Baptiste Eugène Estienne in exactly the same idea. Swinton sent a note to be functionally superior, Secretary of Defense Lieutenant Colonel Maurice Hankey. This sent a memorandum to the end of December the Committee of Imperial Defense , with a member of the First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill . Churchill wrote in turn a memorandum to Prime Minister Herbert Asquith in which he uttered the solid expectation that the Germans would soon come up with a similar weapon (something which, incidentally, was not the slightest evidence). Troubled Asquith ordered Secretary of War Lord Kitchener call a "country Ships Committee" in life was to study the development of armored vehicles. This was the beginning of the development of the Mark I .

In December 1915 built Swinton with its employees, Stern and Albert Murray Sueter, a first prototype tank: Little Willie . This had bulletproof armor and was armed with two machine guns, but could barely move with three kilometers per hour. It was as good as useless. In January 1916 was increased by cannon armed version, Mother developed which was built in series production, for deception called Mark I . [1] The British Army will have a first working machine ready for deployment. Of the total of 49 machines used on the first day, September 15, 1916, only 32 made it to the front line and most of this was quickly eliminated by the Germans.

The Mark I was quickly followed by improved types ( Mark II , Mark IV , Mark V , Whippet ) and came to the French and German army after some time - respectively in 1917 ( Schneider ) and 1918 ( A7V ) - with a similar device.

There were also inventors who had independently arrived at the same idea at the beginning of the First World War. In 1915 were in the United States Cleve F. Shaffer and EM Wheelock (the latter still plans to England opstuurde); Italy captain Luigi Cassali who have built a prototype by the Pavesi plant; Russian engineer AA Porokowskikow who made the Wezdjechod (a small vehicle on a single track), engineer VD Mendeleev, who designed a land cruiser 170 tonnes and NN Lebedenko that the Tsar Tank constructed and Austria Leo Steiner.

Development [ processing ]

The first tanks were of type box tank : a simple box of armored steel tracked where everything was packed. They had not carefully considered what was to be a tank actually - and they also did not really know what they have wanted to join concrete. When the latter was more thought out by the British Martel and Fuller and Frenchman Estienne, immediately followed the next stage in the development tank in the form of the FT 17 , the first modern tank, the rear engine and a dome on top. Although the Entente had big plans for 1919 , the tanks would not end in that year the First World War; 1918 peace brought when there were only made about 8000.

In the twenties the tank production was virtually zero. There was all the more attention to the quality, especially of the drive. Engineers made the first prototypes were fast and relatively reliable. Everyone agreed that the tank was the weapon of the future. But they disagreed on how the future would look like and how soon he would come. For now there would be no money to completely mechanize all national forces. Fuller thought that to do so was to create pure tank units to exploit this weakness. Most tacticians but thought you could build two more classes tanks; one for the war of movement, the other to support the infantry. Each class was again light, medium and heavy tanks exist. Was not modernizing labor specialization?

When in the thirties Stalin began an arms race, all great powers were transferred to the mass production of such specialized tanks, except the United States that made almost no tanks. The Soviet Union relied in soon on the lighter types, the T-26 and BT series, which together nearly twice as many were produced (22,000) all other tanks in the thirties together. The much smaller tank might of Germany consisted mainly of even lighter tanks, the Panzer I and Panzer II . The Germans were thus forced to keep their tanks separately and integrating them with motorized infantry. Only France had an effective amount of heavy breakthrough tanks ( Char B1 bis ).

Königstiger .

Painted tank in World War II monument in Kiev, Ukraine

M1 Abrams tank

At the beginning of the Second World War showed that the German organization was superior and made it possible for both large infantry armies deep defeating strategic penetrations as to outdo the enemy armor reserves combined infantry / tank units: the tactics of the Blitzkrieg . The Allied responded with the forced mass production in 1942 of new generations of heavier tank ( T-34 , M4 Sherman ). Germany also developed a new generation of tanks ( Tiger I and Panther ); However, because the German industry was at a huge degree of quality, and they always wanted to produce highly specialized subtypes, the German war machine was lagging behind compared to the Allies. When the Allies in 1944 began to catch up, it was too late. At the end of the war there were about half a million armored vehicles produced, only a tenth of German manufacture.

After the war there were only three manufacturers of tanks on: the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom. These three were all modern armies in the fifties mechanized. This allows the actual tanks lost their special character, since the army was now equipped with armored vehicles. But they became so normal that they would form the core of each tactic. Everything now turned to the tank, the normal main battle weapon, of which about 60,000 accumulated in the smaller peace armies, while the war the organic strength of all parties together never exceeded 25,000. The qualitative development was slow: tanks remained about the same weight; the Soviets arrived with gun stabilization and waaduitrusting, Americans rangefinders.

In the sixties, this development was completed when no heavy tanks were built more, but in fact only Main Battle Tanks . Germany and France again began to build themselves tanks, the Leopard 1 and the AMX 30 , which were lighter than the British Chieftain . America neglected quantitative production because of the cost of the Vietnam War , but began working with Germany on the very futuristic MBT-70 project, which, however, came to nothing. It was the Soviet Union which took the lead with the T-64 , a tank with odometer, laminated armor, automatic charger and smoothbore gun for firing subkaliberstaafmunitie.

Alarmed by the superiority of the Soviet Types, Western countries were late seventies to the production of modern tanks, heavier and thus were better armored than the Warsaw Pact and also possessed ultra-modern fire control systems with laser rangefinder and full stabilization: German Leopard 2 , the British Challenger 2 , the US M-1 Abrams and the French Leclerc . Meanwhile, there were many new types of anti-tank weapons appeared. In the press this led to posts as the tank would be obsolete. In fact, however, were bought more tanks to compensate for the greater vulnerability, the accumulation rose to 200,000. For the tank itself since there was no alternative, because the entire military organization was built around this weapon. Anti-tank Weapons confirmed this only.

This changed only by the end of the Cold War . Bearings will be switched to the execution of other forms of warfare than before. This makes the role of the tank has not changed, however, how tanks can operate has changed in today's battlefields. This makes the production of new tanks stalled and manufacturers focus on modifying existing types of operations under the new circumstances. Manufacturers focus here mainly occur in residential areas and mountainous regions. Compared to the current generation of tanks means that weapons systems much more flexible should be vertical space they can cover (most modern tanks, up to + 20% and -10% elevation / declination with the gun) and protection of the other vehicle emphasis should be given.

In the US, this has led to the M1A2 TUSK (Tank Urban Survival Kit) and the German Krauss-Maffei has a Leopard 2 variant developed as a study model, the "/ Leopard 2 PSO . It is clear that the next generation tanks no longer purely on the major conflict will focus, but also on the new conflicts in the world, with other forms of action are needed.

Overview of tanks (incomplete) [ edit ]

Tanks from the First World War [ edit ]

German Empire

A7V , A7V-U , lk i , K-Wagen


Schneider , St Chamond , FT-17 , Char 2C


Carro Fiat Tipo 2000 , Carro Fiat Tipo 3000

United Kingdom

Mark I , Mark II , Mark III , Mark IV , Mark V , Mark VI , Mark VII , Mark VIII , Mark X , Flying Elephant , Whippet , Medium Mark B , Medium Mark C , Medium Mark D

Tanks from the Second World War [ edit ]


Ram tank , Grizzly I


Panzerkampfwagen I , Panzerkampfwagen II , Panzerkampfwagen 35 (t) , Panzerkampfwagen 38 (t) , Panzerkampfwagen III , Panzerkampfwagen IV , Panther , Tiger I , Tiger II (also Königstiger called), Maus (prototype), E-100 (prototype), Ratte (concept)

tank hunters : Panzerjäger I , Marder II , StuG III , StuG IV , Jagdpanther , Ferdinand , Jagdtiger


33 AMR , AMR 35 , the AMC 34 , the AMC 35 , Somua S35 , Char 2C , Char D1 , Char D2 , Char D3 , Char bis B1 , Hotchkiss H35 , Renault R35 , FCM 36 , Char Batignolles-Chatillon , APX 35


L3 / 35 , L6 / 39 , L6 / 40 , M11 / 39 , M13 / 40 , Carro Armato P 40


Toldi , 40 M Turan I

Japanese Empire

Type 89 I-Go , type 89 Y-Go , Type 92 Heavy Armored Car , Type 94 TK , Type 97 Chi-Ha , Type 97 Te-Ke , Type 95 Ha-Go , Type 97 Chi-Ha , Type 98 Ke Ni , Type 1 Chi-He , Type 2 Ho-I , Type 2 Ke-To , Type 3 Chi-Nu , Type 3 Ka-Chi , Type 4 Ka-Tsu , Type 4 Ke-Nu , Type 5 Ke-Ho ,


4TP , 7TP , 9TP , 10TP



Soviet Union

T-16 , T-26 , T-27 , T-28 , T-50 , T-60 , T-70 / T-80 , BT-1 , BT 2 , BT-5 , BT-7 , A- 20 , T-34 , T-34-85 , T-35 , T-37 , T-38 , T-40 , T-44 , T-100 (prototype), IS-1 , IS 2 , IS 3 , IS-4 , IS-6 , IS-7 , IS-8 , KV-1 , KV-1S , KV-2 , KV-3 , KV-4 , KV-85

tank destroyers: SU-76 , SU-85 , SU-85B , SU-100 , SU-100y


Lt 35 , Lt 38

United States

M3 Lee , M3 Stuart , M4 Sherman , M6 , M24 Chaffee , M26 Pershing , M36 Jackson , M18 Hellcat

United Kingdom

A34 Comet , Cromwell , Churchill , Crusader , Matilda , Valentine , T.13 , T.15

Tanks after World War II [ edit ]


AMX 13 , AMX 30 , AMX 32 , Leclerc


MBT-70 , Leopard 1 , Leopard 2 , Hetzer


Merkavah 1, Merkavah 2, Merkavah 3, 4 Merkavah


OR 40 , Ariete



United States

Duster M42 , M26 Pershing , M46 Patton , M47 Patton , M48 Patton , M60 , MBT-70, M1 Abrams

United Kingdom

Centurion , Conqueror , Chieftain , Challenger 1 , Challenger 2 , Covenanter , IV Cruiser, Cruiser III

Soviet Union / Russia

T-40 , object 279 , object 368 , object 704 , T-54 /55 T-62 , T-64 , T-72 , T-80 , T-82 , T-90


Type 59 , Type 62 , Type 63 , Type 69 , Type 79 , Type 80 , Type 85 , Type 88 , Type 90 , Type 96 , Type 98 , Type 99 , MBT 2000 (with Pakistan)

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A Java developer (also called Java programmer or Java developer ) is someone who is responsible for the software of various (web) systems in the Java programming language.

What is Java?

Java is a programming object oriented (OO briefly, to the English Object Oriented). This implies that a system is made up of objects.For example, an object is a particular file, a text or a list of data. The great thing about an object oriented environment, an object properties can 'inherit' a parent object so it can be easily made many variants of a particular object. The objects may differ from each other, but nevertheless belong to the same category and thus have certain features in common.

In order to make the process of inheriting somewhat transparent, you can take to compare an actual object from the real world, for example a banana. A banana falls into the category of fruits, like apples, pears and strawberries. Fruit falls into the category of food.Since the connecting feature of this category of the 'palatability factor', this feature also applies to the category of fruit and for the individual components: bananas, apples, pears, strawberries, etc. Within Java works basically the same: there are defined classes which objects may belong. This way you do not have for each component separately formulate any data, but take the objects automatically on certain properties.

Java is widely used on websites (via a Java plug-in), computer games, mobile phones and servers. It is a platform independent language, meaning that it functions on any computer, regardless of operating system (Mac, Windows, etc.). As for the Java syntax is largely based on the C ++ language, though a smaller class library than Java.

Moreover Java is not the same as JavaScript: these are two separate languages ​​between which exist some differences. Thus, JavaScript, unlike Java, a scripting language. In addition, JavaScript code can only be executed in a browser, while Java applications allows that can be executed in a virtual machine. Furthermore, JavaScript knows only objects, not classes.

What does a Java developer?

In general functions of Java developers are as follows:

  • Designing and deploying Java applications, such as websites, games or mobile phones
  • Maintain, test and improve existing Java applications
  • In some cases, act as a problem solver in the area of ​​Java-progamme structure
  • Converting clients' wishes into concrete Java solutions

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Where do Java developers?

Java developers work with a wide variety of organizations, generally in a team of several developers. Colleagues have to deal with those Java developers, for example, application managers , software engineers, application developers , web designers, interaction designers and functional designers.

Key Topics: Java developer colleagues where Java developers work.

How to become a Java developer?

To work as a Java developer, you'll generally need an ICT training at college or university level. Examples of relevant programs are:

  • Computer Science (wo)
  • Computing (college / university)
  • Computer Science (HBO / WO)

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Java (programming language)


Paradigm object Oriented
appeared 1995
Designed by James Gosling and Sun Microsystems
Current version Java Standard Edition 8
type System static, strong
implementations javac ( Sun ), gcj (part of GCC), Apache Harmony and others
Influenced by C ++ , Smalltalk , Eiffel , Ada 83 , C # [1]
Influence on C # , D , J # , Ada 2005 , ECMAScript, PHP , Scala
Operating system multiplatform
License GPL / Java Community Process
Website [1]
Portal  portal Icon   Informatica 
Java Platform

Java is an object-oriented programming language . Java is a platform independent language in terms of syntax is largely based on the (also object oriented) programming language C ++ . However, Java has an extensiveclass library than C ++.


  [ Hide 
  • 1History
  • 2Releases
  • 3Use
  • 4Java versus C ++
  • 5Java and JavaScript
  • 6Java vs. .NET
  • 7Java and open source
  • 8Example Program
  • 9See also
  • 10External links

History [ edit ]

Java started in early 90s in a small subsidiary of Sun Microsystems led by James Gosling . That company, First Person (including Arthur van Hoff and Patrick Naughton), had the task: " make something cool " (translated:create something cool ). In the early years the company focused on software for set-top boxes . When some negotiations narrowly failed they started to Java. The working name Oak was chosen when they looked out when searching for a name and as an oak (English: Oak) saw. However, there was already a programming language to exist by that name, so they chose "Java", a reference to coffee . Later they built on this terminology and introduced Java Beans (beans) and JAR archives (Java ARchive) (a jar is a jar).

Initially they wanted to promote Java as a programming language for all kinds of electronic devices such as televisions , remote controls and refrigerators . But when the World Wide Web increasingly gained popularity, Sun figured they their (then still not too popular) language could really use in a Web environment . Thanks to the open specification and the possibility of a Java program as applet embedding in a web page (also called "embedding"), the was hype quickly created.

The use of Java for small devices was a short time later (1997) still achieved with the release of the Java Card technology , which allows smart cards can be programmed in Java. This technique was soon after its introduction in the mobile -World adopted for use in the SIM card . It caught on and in 2005 this Java Technology was used in more than 80% of the issued SIM cards.

The next generation Java then offered the opportunity to run Java Software on servers themselves (in English: "server-side"). This takes the form of servlets , Enterprise JavaBeans , and JavaServer Pages . Especially in this area Java has proven over the years its power and the language is seen as an important environment for web applications. See also Java 2 Enterprise Edition .

Booming, the Java version intended and is suitable for devices with limited processing power, such as PDAs , mobile phones, and - finally - the set-top box. See Java 2 Micro Edition .

On November 13, 2006 Sun gave parts of Java as free open source software under the GNU General Public License (GPL). On 8 May 2007 Sun made ​​the final parts of Java under the GPL, with a few small portions after which Sun is not the copyright has.

When Google was successful with the operating system Android , which can run programs written in Java, Java became popular with developers. This was not to part with the optimized virtual machine Dalvik that is used to run Java programs, allowing Java programs were faster.

Releases [ edit ]

Java has had the following versions:

Release numbercodenameRelease date
JDK 1.1.4 sparkler September 12, 1997
JDK 1.1.5 Pumpkin December 3, 1997
JDK 1.1.6 abigail April 24, 1998
JDK 1.1.7 Brutus September 28, 1998
JDK 1.1.8 chelsea April 8, 1999
J2SE 1.2 Playground December 4, 1998
J2SE 1.2.1 no 30 March 1999
J2SE 1.2.2 Cricket July 8, 1999
J2SE 1.3 Kestrel May 8, 2000
J2SE 1.3.1 Ladybird May 17, 2001
J2SE 1.4.0 Merlin February 13, 2002
J2SE 1.4.1 Hopper September 16, 2002
J2SE 1.4.2 Mantis June 26, 2003
J2SE 5.0 (1.5.0) Tiger September 29, 2004
Java SE 6 (1.6.0) mustang December 11, 2006
Java SE 7 (1.7.0) Dolphin July 28, 2011
Java SE 8 (1.8.0) Spider March 18, 2014

About the numbering of the versions has been a lot to do. After the release of version 1.2 is the second frequently mentioned behind Java, which then resulted in a whole series of books "Java 2 treated" even when it came to version 1.3 or 1.4. From version 1.5.0, there was a double numbering: they talked about Java 5.0, it was about the JRE or Java Runtime Environment. The version number 1.5.0 was referring very specifically to the JSDK or Java Software Development Kit, in other words the development environment. SE stands moreover for "Standard Edition".

Use [ Edit ]

During the 90 Java has become quite popular. In most cases, Java seemed good only for educational use and for web applications, respectively, because of the tight syntax and ability "applets" to build into web pages. Due to slight differences in Java versions between different browsers use is applets never really got off the ground, which has led to the introduction of the Java Plug-in : instead of a Java virtual machine by building in the browser builder, the user can download it self where this is necessary. This is an incompatibility between JVM circumvented's various brands.

Another platform where Java is widely used is the mobile phone. Many devices provide the ability to execute Java programs. These programs must comply with the specifications laid down in the Java 2 Micro Edition standard.

The use of Java programs on servers is more and more increased since the implementation of just-in-time compilation , a big acceleration of the implementation entailed at the level of the Java Virtual Machine, allowing the previously sluggish Java programs were also useful for server applications . In addition contain J2EE - (Enterprise Edition) libraries, a large number of classes for programming (web) server applications communicate with databases and the use of all generic services. Most Internet-based banking services in the Netherlands, for example, now run on Java technology. The open source -contentmanagementsysteem of Dutch MMBase is written entirely in Java.

Java is the simplicity and web-based capabilities also very popular as a programming language for computer games . An example is Minecraft . The development of libraries like Java OpenAL (Joal) and Java OpenGL (Jogl), contributes to the use of Java for computer games. There are also open source libraries developed, such as the Lightweight Java Game Library (lwjgl). The JMonkeyEngine is an engine for the development of 3D computer games in Java.

Java vs C ++ [ edit ]

Java is compiled to byte code for a virtual machine , the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM is available for many different types of computers. As a result, the compiled byte code platform-independent , i.e., the code can be run on any computer, regardless of theoperating system (such as Windows, Unix, or Mac OS X). There is only one (virtual) platform: the JVM.

C ++ source code (and the source code for C , not the precursor object-oriented C ++) is usually directly to machine code compiled, so the executables run on only one target platform. Java Byte Code, at the last possible moment ( just in time , JIT) compiled to machine language. The dynamic properties of a program are also included this JIT compilation. It may happen that commonly used byte code is compiled again because in a situation shown with a slightly different compilation to be book large speed gains.

This will allow a Java program initially run slower than similar programs that are compiled directly into machine language. In the early days of the Java programming language was the JIT compile still not fully implemented. This allows Java has suffered a serious image problem still persists, although Java nowadays performs competitively.

In addition, Java versus C ++ sometimes regarded as a disadvantage for the C ++ language independent ISO / ANSI committees exist, while Java still seems to be owned by Sun Microsystems . Others claim that there contrast, Java still has the ability to grow, adapt and incorporate new developments, while C ++ by standardization is rigid and thus overtaken on all sides by all kinds of developments.

Java is the programmer better protected against themselves than in C ++ and C. There is no Java pointer manipulation . This is an advantage because of errors in the use of pointers are hard to trace and may even result in the crash of the operating system. On the other hand it is also a disadvantage because it limits the freedom of the programmer.

Another important difference between Java and C ++ is the lack of explicit memory management in Java: Java keeps himself in which objects with the new - operator are created and removed automatically when no more references to those objects. In addition,exception handling regulated more thoroughly and more accurately than in C ++.

Like C ++ supports Java (since 5) also programmed generic . Both Java and C ++ parameterized types exist only for the compiler. In Java, these types replaced by the corresponding, at least specific, non-generic type (eg .: List <String> is List ). In addition, use is made ​​of runtime casting for obtaining specific types. In C ++ generic types are correctly replaced by specialized types. Here it is not possible to write, for example, to a library of parameterized classes that only at runtime to be linked. A List <T> class that is in a certain library must be recompiled if it is parameterized for a type and parameterization thereof is not compiled into the library. That is why STL , the standard library of C ++, almost exclusively in header files defined: the application that uses STL, will have to compile their own versions of the classes.

Some Java is a somewhat clearer language than C ++, but that's a matter of taste: writing totally incomprehensible programs with C (++) easier than with Java. Many C ++ - programmers miss things that are deliberately omitted in Java as destructors , operator overloading and pointer manipulation. They complain that the garbage collector is not fast enough release the unused objects.

Java and JavaScript [ edit ]

Many people confuse Java with JavaScript , but in fact have to do the little two languages ​​together. Although both languages ​​at first sight similar in syntax similar, there are major differences:

  • Feasibility: JavaScript is intended as a scripting language and is therefore often interpreted . Java is compiled into byte code first and then executed by a virtual machine (VM).
  • Relation to browser: A scripting language often serves as a tool in a program. In the case of a browser, JavaScript serves as a means to manipulate static web pages. However, Java applets are separate programs, in principle, have no connection with the web page in which they appear: turning them into a kind of "sandbox" (sandbox) where they can not get out. Signed Java applets do not have this sandbox.
  • Strong-typed vs. Weakly-typed : JavaScript does not strongly typed variables, which means that every declared variable each data type can contain. Java must first indicate what data type can contain a variable, and if the wrong data type is assigned to a variable, it is made ​​at compile time reporting. When programming small, simple applications reduces the need not specify data types, the complexity of coding, JavaScript and therefore more suitable for short, small applications. In large applications, the importance of strong types much larger because the programmer enables early to detect errors relating to misuse of data types and unnecessary conversions can between themselves in hand.
  • Static typing vs. dynamic typing : JavaScript is dynamically typed, Java is statically typed. This is to say, type checking in Java takes place during compilation, and in JavaScript at runtime .
  • Object Model : has Java classes , JavaScript only has objects . Java also has an object model based on class inheritance , JavaScript Object Model is based on a prototype inheritance . Further support JavaScript duck-typing , unlike Java.

Java vs. .NET [ edit ]

The concept of the virtual machine (VM) is older than Java itself. In the 70s there was the P-Code -virtuele machine Pascal program to perform at platform independent with. Even Microsoft later created his own virtual machine: the Common Language Runtime or CLR, the base of .NET . The big difference, however, between the Java VM from Sun and Microsoft CLR is that Sun can run on different operating systems, while Microsoft is limited to the various Windows versions of Microsoft. As there are now by the open source community a number of successful .NET -runtimes for Linux released, which Mono is the best known, with which .NET code can run on other operating systems.

Java and open source [ edit ]

Java is often mentioned in connection with open source and open standards , and on November 13 2006 Sun Microsystems announced release of Java under the GNU General Public License .

Sun already had the management of the Java platform in the hands of an independent organization, the Java Community Process (JCP). This partnership of Sun with other companies, institutions and individuals determine which APIs and other standards must be integrated into the platform. The JCP determines the direction of the core platform itself - which classes are included in the standard library and what changes are made ​​to the language itself. About changes in the core platform Sun, however, has a veto within the JCP.

Sun has then released a Java Development Environment, Netbeans, which is released later in the open source community and is now being further developed by an open source community and managed. Also in the open source world to find a lot of tools and software for Java and / or written in Java, which are released under one of the many open source licenses.

Preview Program [ edit ]

The famous " Hello World " program in Java can look like this:

public  class  HelloWorld  {
                    public  static  void  main ( String []  args )  { 
                    System . out . println ( "Hello, world!" ); 

On a website (an " applet ") it looks like this:


Java Programming / Introduction

< Java Programming
  Java Programming 
Basic →



Java Programming In development.  Revision Date: unknown

  1. introduction Moderately developed.  Revision Date: August 22, 2008
  2. Base Well developed.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  3. Export & In development.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  4. string Operations In development.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  5. arrays Yet virtually nothing.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  6. Collections Yet virtually nothing.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  7. exceptions Moderately developed.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  8. Generics Yet virtually nothing.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  9. built-in functions Yet virtually nothing.  Revision Date: January 20, 2007
  10. Multithreading Yet virtually nothing.  Revision Date: January 20, 2007
  11. GUI In development.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  12. JSP: JavaServer Pages Moderately developed.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007


  1. classes Well developed.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  2. Inheritance In development.  Revision Date: January 20, 2007
  3. advanced classes In development.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007

design Patterns

  1. strategy Pattern Yet virtually nothing.  Revision Date: December 26, 2010


  1. Appendix A: Installation In development.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007
  2. Appendix B: Javadoc In development.  Revision Date: November 24, 2007


Welcome to the course Java programming! In this course you learn how to write simple utilities in the Java programming language. This base is sufficient to proceed to the advanced parts of Java.

Before you can start the course, you must install the Java Development Kit, also referred to as JDK. This allows you to build your programs. See Appendix A for more information on how to install the JDK.

This introduction gives you some more information about the concept of object-oriented programming, also known as OO (Object Oriented) Programming said, about the special features of the Java language, and how to create and implement self-made programs in general.

OOP [ edit ]

To a computer program , ie different instructions put together in a program , one had used a lot of work. A computer works namely binary, ie ones and zeros. To write a program so they had to put a long series of ones and zeros in succession. However, this is a very time-consuming, and the result was that there were not many programs and writing a new program took a lot of time. Therefore, one has the programming language invented, which makes programming easier.

One tries to make programming languages ​​as simple as possible, and at the same time to ensure that they have the greatest possible efficiency. This is done by analogies to stabbing with reality in a programming language. A program should not only run well, but also to be understood easily. Therefore, one has invented the programming object-oriented (OO).

The central concept in OO is the object. To give an example of an object, look around you. What do you see? A pen, a desk, a piece of paper ... These are all objects . In the same way, objects are used in a OO-language.

Moreover Objects properties inherit . To demonstrate the principle of inheritance, as you look at a bowl of fruit. What do you see? Apples, pears, oranges, ... All these "objects" may fall under the "fruit" denominator. Then fruit falls itself again under the heading of "Food". Food has a great feature: it can be eaten. Fruit inherits about this property. An Apple also inherits this feature on, and the result is that you can eat the apple. A similar principle is applied in OO. The parent object, which inherit all objects, is called accidental or even object.

Objects in OO can be quite realistic, as in the example of the fruit, but they can also be more abstract, such as a list, a piece of text, a file, an open network connection ... When you create objects, always try the analogy to take account of the fact in mind.

It is impossible to grasp objects out of nothing. So that in an OO language. To create objects, you must first write a blueprint for that object, a class . This is what you do in the programming language, in this case Java. In this class, you define what a given object can, and do, and then there are endless objects can be created. To return to the example of the fruit: once you know how to "create" an apple, you can endlessly "do" a lot, with different sizes, colors and even different flavors! This is to program the power of object-oriented programming.

Compile and the power of Java [ edit ]

As stated earlier, a computer only understands ones and zeros. So how can a computer ever run a program in a programming language with complex things like objects? The answer is quite simple: before you can do with a program, the code must first be converted to ones and zeros. This process is called compiling .

In a "classic" programming language such as C ++, the program code is converted to code immediately understood by a computer. This is of course easy, because there is no additional program is required in order to execute the code.But this does mean that code written for one system (eg. Microsoft Windows) does not work on other systems (eg. Apple Mac OS or Linux). There must therefore be compiled separate versions for those systems, and often the code should be changed first because these systems work differently.

With Java, it is intended to make platform independent programs. That is, a program that you make at home will run in Java on your system, but also on other operating systems like Linux or Mac OS X ...

Java solves this problem by using a compiler which, while creating a binary file, but where the jobs still are platform independent. In place of the source code to be converted directly to machine language, such as C or C ++, etc., the case is. This has the result that the Java compiler no stand-alone makes executable file (an .exe under Microsoft Windows). Instead, the Java compiler compiles a file in byte code. This file is then read by an interpreter ( Java Virtual Machine , JVM) to be installed on any platform where Java programs must run on. The JVM reads the byte code, interprets the commands and then executes the program.

\ Mbox {Java program} \ rightarrow \ mbox {byte code} \ rightarrow \ mbox {machine language}

The JVM is indeed dependent on the platform, but is available for many different systems, is free and only needs to be installed.

Executing bytecode is admittedly slightly slower than the average native program, or a program that is written specifically for one system (Microsoft Windows an .exe), but this is hardly noticeable in everyday use. The advantage is that you are not dependent on decisions made by the software developer to whether or not to develop a program for your system.

By Friso Weijers , Friday, May 22, 2015 19:15 , 129 comments  
Submitter: Speeder

Java includes Saturday twenty years. James Gosling in 1991, began the project that would lead to the programming language, but only on May 23, 1995 the language was officially released to the general public. Java is one of the most popular programming languages ​​in the world.

Java began in 1991 as a project of Sun Microsystems, a company founded in 1982 which was adopted five years ago by Oracle. The secret "Green Team," whose founders Patrick Naughton, Mike Sheridan and James Gosling, had to predict future developments in the computer industry. They concluded that computers for consumers could take a great flight. The team therefore developed a prototype controller for home entertainment devices such as cable boxes. The box turned on a new programming language: Oak, developed by Gosling.

Cable companies were not interested in using the technology, so the Green Team turned its attention to the fledgling Internet. That had no opportunities for dynamic content yet. Oak, of which the name was changed in 1994, after a trademark issue in Java, which was able to provide by means of the web page embedded in applets. The language was therefore quickly became popular on the Web, in part because the then dominant Netscape browser supported him from the public release of Java on May 23, 1995.

Very earn accordingly in the early years was a Dutch programmer named Arthur van Hoff. He was the Java team responsible for the compiler, and has had a major impact on the final specification of the language.When Java was finally used as a language for the Web  was he there also closely involved.

On the Internet, the language eventually was superseded by Adobe Flash and HTML5 and javascript later.The many platforms suitable programming found new applications in the enterprise market because of its power and applicability. Sun continued to develop the language. Thus, the second generation Java offered the possibility to run applets on itself as a web application servers, while mobile phones and PDAs got their own version in the form of the Java Micro Edition. In 2007, the source code of the whole language was released, after earlier parts of the language according to an open source license were released.

Java is used today by nine million developers; the language running on about seven billion devices. Java is one of the most widely used programming languages ​​in the world, and is used in addition to science and business purposes for computer games like Minecraft. Many Android apps are based on Java. Oracle and Google  are about still over in the clinch in the courtroom, because Google for its own Java implementation parts of the code and structure of Oracle APIs. That case is now before the US Supreme Court.

Oracle is now responsible for the development of Java, which is now at version 8 landed . Java 9, to be released in 2016, the language is modular and therefore more flexible. Oracle has an online timeline  put in honor of the twentieth anniversary of Java; besides it until the end of this year off Java certificates for programmers.

Working as Java Developer


Professional Java Developer

JAVA Developer develops software for various systems. JAVA Developer works with this programming language JAVA. Java can be used for various systems. So Java can be used for complex computer systems but also for smaller applications JAVA ideal. JAVA Developer has a thorough knowledge of this language and knows how to apply them correctly.

The Java developer is involved in the entire process. Both the development of the system, testing, and the final implementation. JAVA Developer go through all these steps and will post implementation also remain concerned by identifying and solving problems within the developed system. JAVA Developer often works on this together with a team of developers and knowledge sharing within the team is important to achieve the best performance.

The JAVA Developer can be operative for a company which is itself the systems develops and maintains. In addition, the Java Developer may also work for a company which develops systems for others. The Java Developer will then work for a client who gives the order. Often then worked on site at the customer.

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To be able to work as a Java Developer is often asked for training in ICT on HBO or WO level. In various ICT courses are programming languages ​​like JAVA discussed. There are also specific courses and training to learn the programming language JAVA. These can be followed (in addition to training in ICTs) to work as a Java Developer. Often these types of courses and training programs are also offered by the organization in order

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